The fundamentals of science and process involved in automobile practice essay

Managerial Economics Managerial Economics Managerial Economics can be defined as amalgamation of economic theory with business practices so as to ease decision-making and future planning by management. It makes use of economic theory and concepts. It helps in formulating logical managerial decisions. The key of Managerial Economics is the micro-economic theory of the firm.

The fundamentals of science and process involved in automobile practice essay

Among the very basic principles that guide scientists, as well as many other scholars, are those expressed as respect for the integrity of knowledge, collegiality, honesty, objectivity, and openness. These principles are at work in the fundamental elements of the scientific method, such as formulating a hypothesis, designing an experiment to test the hypothesis, and collecting and interpreting data.

In addition, more particular principles characteristic of specific scientific disciplines influence the methods of observation; the acquisition, storage, management, and sharing of data; the communication of scientific knowledge and information; and the training of younger scientists.

The basic and particular principles that guide scientific research practices exist primarily in an unwritten code of ethics. Although some have proposed that these principles should be written down and formalized, 2 the principles and traditions of science are, for the most part, conveyed to successive generations of scientists through example, discussion, and informal education.

As was pointed out in an early Academy report on responsible conduct of research in the Page 37 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Responsible Science, Volume I: Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process. The National Academies Press. Physicist Richard Feynman invoked the informal approach to communicating the basic principles of science in his commencement address at the California Institute of Technology Feynman, It's a kind of scientific integrity, a principle of scientific thought that corresponds to a kind of utter honesty—a kind of leaning over backwards.

For example, if you're doing an experiment, you should report everything that you think might make it invalid—not only what you think is right about it; other causes that could possibly explain your results; and things you thought of that you've eliminated by some other experiment, and how they worked—to make sure the other fellow can tell they have been eliminated.

Details that could throw doubt on your interpretation must be given, if you know them. You must do the best you can—if you know anything at all wrong, or possibly wrong—to explain it.

If you make a theory, for example, and advertise it, or put it out, then you must also put down all the facts that disagree with it, as well as those that agree with it. In summary, the idea is to try to give all the information to help others to judge the value of your contribution, not just the information that leads to judgment in one particular direction or another.

Even in a revolutionary scientific field like molecular biology, students and trainees have learned the basic principles governing judgments made in such standardized procedures as cloning a new gene and determining its sequence.

In evaluating practices that guide research endeavors, it is important to consider the individual character of scientific fields. Research fields that yield highly replicable results, such as ordinary organic chemical structures, are quite different from fields such as cellular immunology, which are in a much earlier stage of development and accumulate much erroneous or uninterpretable material before the pieces fit together coherently.

When a research field is too new or too fragmented to support consensual paradigms or established methods, different scientific practices can emerge. Page 38 Share Cite Suggested Citation: This knowledge is based on explanatory principles whose verifiable consequences can be tested by independent observers.

Science encompasses a large body of evidence collected by repeated observations and experiments. Although its goal is to approach true explanations as closely as possible, its investigators claim no final or permanent explanatory truths.

Verifiable facts always take precedence. Scientists operate within a system designed for continuous testing, where corrections and new findings are announced in refereed scientific publications.

The task of systematizing and extending the understanding of the universe is advanced by eliminating disproved ideas and by formulating new tests of others until one emerges as the most probable explanation for any given observed phenomenon.

This is called the scientific method. An idea that has not yet been sufficiently tested is called a hypothesis. Different hypotheses are sometimes advanced to explain the same factual evidence. Rigor in the testing of hypotheses is the heart of science, if no verifiable tests can be formulated, the idea is called an ad hoc hypothesis—one that is not fruitful; such hypotheses fail to stimulate research and are unlikely to advance scientific knowledge.

A fruitful hypothesis may develop into a theory after substantial observational or experimental support has accumulated. When a hypothesis has survived repeated opportunities for disproof and when competing hypotheses have been eliminated as a result of failure to produce the predicted consequences, that hypothesis may become the accepted theory explaining the original facts.

Scientific theories are also predictive. They allow us to anticipate yet unknown phenomena and thus to focus research on more narrowly defined areas. If the results of testing agree with predictions from a theory, the theory is provisionally corroborated.

If not, it is proved false and must be either abandoned or modified to account for the inconsistency. Scientific theories, therefore, are accepted only provisionally.

It is always possible that a theory that has withstood previous testing may eventually be disproved.

The fundamentals of science and process involved in automobile practice essay

But as theories survive more tests, they are regarded with higher levels of confidence. In science, then, facts are determined by observation or measurement of natural or experimental phenomena. A hypothesis is a proposed explanation of those facts.

A theory is a hypothesis that has gained wide acceptance because it has survived rigorous investigation of its predictions.Business process reengineering (BPR) is the fundamental analysis and redesign of workflow within and between enterprises.

2. 2. Reengineering is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical contemporary measures of performance such as cost, quality, service and speed. Your essay could contain a numbered list (like you are reading now) or it could be written as a standard narrative essay.

If you are instructed to write a step-by-step without using numbers, your essay should contain all the elements of any other essay assignment: an introductory paragraph, a body, and a conclusion. The difference is that your introduction will explain why your topic is important or relevant.

- Communication Communication is a process of imparting or transferring thoughts from one entity to another either through language or writing or some other signs (Wrench, McCroskey & Richmond, ).

that is still a relatively recent amount of time compared to research in other science fields such as chemistry or biology. Despite the fact. We provide excellent essay writing service 24/7. Enjoy proficient essay writing and custom writing services provided by professional academic writers.

The nice thing about the process essay is that it can be truly helpful. When our readers finish this essay, they will know how to do something that they didn't know how to do before or they will understand some process that had mystified them before.

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There are several cautions to keep in mind in choosing a topic for a process essay. Suggested Citation:"2 SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES AND RESEARCH PRACTICES."National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. Responsible Science, Volume I: Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process.

The Engineering Design Process