Classical liberals believe that individuals are "egoistic, coldly calculating, essentially inert and atomistic"  and that society is no more than the sum of its individual members.
These beliefs were complemented by a belief that laborers could be best motivated by financial incentive. This belief led to the passage of the Poor Law Amendment Actwhich limited the provision of social assistance, based on the idea that markets are the mechanism that most efficiently leads to wealth.
They opposed any income or wealth redistribution, which they believed would be dissipated by the lowest orders.
They were critical of what would come to be the idea of the welfare state as interfering in a free market. In a free market, both labor and capital would receive the greatest possible reward while production would be organized efficiently to meet consumer demand. A government to protect individual rights and to provide services that cannot be provided in a free market.
|Goodman In the history of politics, there is only one fundamental, abiding issue:|
|Classical liberalism was the dominant ideology of capitalism during the periods of eighteenth century. It view was widely accepted.|
|An Encyclopedia] "Classical liberalism" is the term used to designate the ideology advocating private property, an unhampered market economy, the rule of law, constitutional guarantees of freedom of religion and of the press, and international peace based on free trade. Up until aroundthis ideology was generally known simply as liberalism.|
A common national defense to provide protection against foreign invaders. Building and maintaining public institutions. Public works that included a stable currency, standard weights and measures and building and upkeep of roads, canals, harbors, railways, communications and postal services.
For society to guarantee positive rights, it requires taxation over and above the minimum needed to enforce negative rights. In its most extreme form, neo-classical liberalism advocated Social Darwinism.
Hayek saw the British philosophers Bernard MandevilleDavid HumeAdam SmithAdam FergusonJosiah Tucker and William Paley as representative of a tradition that articulated beliefs in empiricismthe common law and in traditions and institutions which had spontaneously evolved but were imperfectly understood.
This tradition believed in rationalism and sometimes showed hostility to tradition and religion. Hayek conceded that the national labels did not exactly correspond to those belonging to each tradition: Guido De Ruggiero also identified differences between "Montesquieu and Rousseau, the English and the democratic types of liberalism"  and argued that there was a "profound contrast between the two Liberal systems".
This liberalism had "insensibly adapted ancient institutions to modern needs" and "instinctively recoiled from all abstract proclamations of principles and rights". Lieber asserted that "independence in the highest degree, compatible with safety and broad national guarantees of liberty, is the great aim of Anglican liberty, and self-reliance is the chief source from which it draws its strength".
Whiggery had become a dominant ideology following the Glorious Revolution of and was associated with the defence of the British Parliament, upholding the rule of law and defending landed property.
The origins of rights were seen as being in an ancient constitutionwhich had existed from time immemorial. These rights, which some Whigs considered to include freedom of the press and freedom of speech, were justified by custom rather than by natural rights. They believed that the power of the executive had to be constrained.
While they supported limited suffrage, they saw voting as a privilege rather than as a right. However, there was no consistency in Whig ideology and diverse writers including John LockeDavid HumeAdam Smith and Edmund Burke were all influential among Whigs, although none of them was universally accepted.
Richard Price and Joseph Priestley adapted the language of Locke to the ideology of radicalism.Classical Liberalism Essay Many Americans associate the term liberalism with, for good or ill, such emotionally charged topics as big government, welfare, socialism, and civil rights.
It is axiomatic that the meanings of political labels can change over time. Classical Liberal Theory Classical liberalism is a very interesting political theory.
The underlying belief is that what makes a person human is freedom from the dependence on the will of others.
Classical Liberalism vs. Classical Conservatism Essay Words | 6 Pages Classical Liberalism vs. Classical Conservatism In today's society, most people are unable to explain the differences between the Democratic Party and the Republican Party.
One of the main points of the classical liberalism is evidently emphasized in the book of Jeremy Benetham “An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and legislation”. A response to “radical” Catholics who hold American classical liberalism to be intrinsically hostile to Christianity.
The Classical Liberalism Theory - Introduction The Classical liberalism theory mainly emphasis is sited on shielding the freedom of the individual by restricting the power of the government.