Greek is also recognised as a minority language in parts of Italy, and in Albania, Armenia, Romania and Ukraine.
Elephant Evolution of pictograms Chinese characters represent words of the language using several strategies. A few characters, including some of the most commonly used, were originally pictogramswhich depicted the objects denoted, or ideogramsin which meaning was rewrite alphabets pronunciation omniglot iconically.
The vast majority were written using the rebus principlein which a character for a similarly sounding word was either simply borrowed or more commonly extended with a disambiguating semantic marker to form a phono-semantic compound character.
Characters in this class derive from pictures of the objects they denote. Over time they have been standardized, simplified, and stylized to make them easier to write, and their derivation is therefore not always obvious. Rebus was pivotal in the history of writing in China insofar as it represented the stage at which logographic writing could become purely phonetic phonographic.
These characters are composed of two parts: In most cases the semantic indicator is also the radical under which the character is listed in dictionaries. The right-hand side in each case is a phonetic indicator.
In this case it can be seen that the pronunciation of the character is slightly different from that of its phonetic indicator; the effect of historical sound change means that the composition of such characters can sometimes seem arbitrary today. Many Chinese names of elements in the periodic table and many other chemistry-related characters were formed this way.
The term does not appear in the body of the dictionary, and is often omitted from modern systems. The legend relates that on the day the characters were created, people heard ghosts wailing and saw crops falling like rain.
Neolithic signs in China In recent decades, a series of inscribed graphs and pictures have been found at Neolithic sites in China, including Jiahu c. Often these finds are accompanied by media reports that push back the purported beginnings of Chinese writing by thousands of years.
Oracle bone script Ox scapula with oracle bone inscription The earliest confirmed evidence of the Chinese script yet discovered is the body of inscriptions carved on oracle bones from the late Shang dynasty c. Bythe source of the bones had been traced to a village near Anyang in Henan Provincewhich was excavated by the Academia Sinica between and Overfragments have been found.
The Shang king would communicate with his ancestors on topics relating to the royal family, military success, weather forecasting, ritual sacrifices, and related topics by means of scapulimancyand the answers would be recorded on the divination material itself.
Chinese bronze inscriptions The traditional picture of an orderly series of scripts, each one invented suddenly and then completely displacing the previous one, has been conclusively demonstrated to be fiction by the archaeological finds and scholarly research of the later 20th and early 21st centuries.
As early as the Shang dynasty, oracle-bone script coexisted as a simplified form alongside the normal script of bamboo books preserved in typical bronze inscriptionsas well as the extra-elaborate pictorial forms often clan emblems found on many bronzes. The inscription cast in bronze on the vessel commemorates a gift of cowrie shells then used as currency in China from someone of presumably elite status in Zhou dynasty society.
An inscription of some Chinese characters appears twice on the vessel. The inscription comments on state rituals that accompanied court ceremony, recorded by an official scribe.
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Based on studies of these bronze inscriptions, it is clear that, from the Shang dynasty writing to that of the Western Zhou and early Eastern Zhouthe mainstream script evolved in a slow, unbroken fashion, until assuming the form that is now known as seal script in the late Eastern Zhou in the state of Qinwithout any clear line of division.Khoekhoe (Khoekhoegowab) Khoekhoe is a Khoisan languages spoken by approximately , people in parts of South Africa, Botswana and Namibia.
It is spoken by three groups of people: the Nama (Khoekhoen), Damar and Haiǁom. The language is also known as Nama. A place to ask for help on finding quotations, etymologies, or other information about particular words.
The Tea room is named to accompany the Beer parlour.. For questions about the technical operation of Wiktionary use the Beer parlour. Three sets of pronunciation suggestions are given in the table below: first the pronunciation of each letter in Modern Greek, then the reconstructed Hellenistic Koine pronunciation, and finally the reconstructed pronunciation for the Classical period (before about BCE).
This also works for any work that has been dubbed into a different language from the original. French characters in an originally French film are assumed to be speaking French to one another, even if everything has been translated for the convenience of an English-speaking audience.
Spanish Writing System. schwenkreis.com has an informative page about Spanish which gives an overview of the language, the alphabet and writing system in general..
Sample texts and sound recordings of the Spanish language are provided in this resource. Other materials include a sample translation from Spanish to English. These languages are known collectively as Anglo-Saxon or Old English, and began to appear in writing during the 5th century AD in a runic alphabet.
English acquired vocabulary from Old Norse after Norsemen starting settling in parts of Britain, particularly in the north and east, from the 9th century.