Faced with an increasingly competitive business environment, many employers are turning to employment testing as a way to improve their workforces. In a recent survey, forty percent of Fortune companies indicated that their employment selection systems included some form of psychological testing. A similar survey by the American Management Association showed that forty-four percent of its responding members used testing to select employees.
See Article History Personality assessment, the measurement of personal characteristics. Assessment is an end result of gathering information intended to advance psychological theory and research and to increase the probability that wise decisions will be made in applied settings e.
The approach taken by the specialist in personality assessment is based on the assumption that much of the observable variability in behaviour from one person to another results from differences in the extent to which individuals possess particular underlying personal characteristics traits.
The assessment specialist seeks to define these traits, to measure them objectively, and to relate them to socially significant aspects of behaviour. A distinctive feature of the scientific approach to personality measurement is Reaction paper about personality effort, wherever possible, to describe human characteristics in quantitative terms.
How much of a trait manifests itself in an individual? How many traits are present? Quantitative personality measurement is especially useful in comparing groups of people as well as individuals. Do groups of people from different cultural and economic backgrounds differ when considered in the light of their particular personality attributes or traits?
How large are the group differences? Hence, a narrowly focused approach is inadequate to do justice to the complex human behaviour that occurs under the constantly changing set of challenges, pleasures, demands, and stresses of everyday life. The sophisticated measurement of human personality inescapably depends on the use of a variety of concepts to provide trait definitions and entails the application of various methods of observation and evaluation.
Personality theorists and researchers seek to define and to understand the diversity of human traits, the many ways people have of thinking and perceiving and learning and emoting. Such nonmaterial human dimensions, types, and attributes are constructs —in this case, inferences drawn from observed behaviour.
Widely studied personality constructs include anxiety, hostility, emotionality, motivation, and introversion-extroversion. Anxiety, for example, is a concept, or constructinferred in people from what they say, their facial expressions, and their body movements.
Personality is interactional in two senses. As indicated above, personal characteristics can be thought of as products of interactions among underlying psychological factors; for example, an individual may experience tension because he or she is both shy and desirous of social success.
These products, in turn, interact with the types of situations people confront in their daily lives. A person who is anxious about being evaluated might show debilitated performance in evaluative situations for example, taking testsbut function well in other situations in which an evaluative emphasis is not present.
Personality makeup can be either an asset or a liability depending on the situation. For example, some people approach evaluative situations with fear and foreboding, while others seem to be motivated in a desirable direction by competitive pressures associated with performance.
Measuring constructs Efforts to measure personality constructs stem from a variety of sources. Frequently they grow out of theories of personality; anxiety and repression the forgetting of unpleasant experiencesfor example, are among the central concepts of the theory of psychoanalysis.
Among the major issues in the study of personality measurement is the question of which of the many personality constructs that have been quantified are basic or fundamental and which can be expected to involve wasted effort in their measurement because they represent poorly defined combinations of more elemental constructs; which measurement techniques are most effective and convenient for the purpose of assessment; and whether it is better to interview people in measuring personality, or to ask them to say, for example, what an inkblot or a cloud in the sky reminds them of.
Efforts to measure any given personality construct can fail as a result of inadequacies in formulating or defining the trait to be measured and weaknesses in the assessment methods employed.
An investigator might desire to specify quantitatively the degree to which individuals are submissive in social and competitive situations. His effectiveness will depend on the particular theory of submissiveness he brings to bear on the problem; on the actual procedures he selects or devises to measure submissiveness; and on the adequacy of the research he performs to demonstrate the usefulness of the measure.Personality changes in persons with chronic brain infection with C.
pneumoniae (including Multiple Sclerosis). David Wheldon FRCPath (Note: this essay is concerned with the general widespread personality change which may occur independently of the . Personality assessment: Personality assessment, the measurement of personal characteristics. Assessment is an end result of gathering information intended to advance psychological theory and research and to increase the probability that wise decisions will be made in applied settings (e.g., in selecting the most promising.
by Timothy Lawver, DO, and Kelly Blankenship, DO From the Department of Psychiatry, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio.
Reaction Paper To Personality Test. have studied personality test for a long history.
At one time, personality tests were not perceived as a valid selection method. However, personality tests are widely used and get generally positive conclusions today. EPISTEMOLOGICAL PLURALISM. The concerns that fuel the discussion of women and computers are best served by talking about more than women and more than computers.
Pint-sized TMS: England beat Pakistan by an innings and 55 runs. England's emphatic victory over Pakistan in the second Test cannot be used to "paper over cracks", says captain Joe Root.