Origins[ edit ] Alexander Hamiltonauthor of the majority of The Federalist Papers The Federal Convention sent the proposed Constitution to the Confederation Congress, which in turn submitted it to the states for ratification at the end of September On September 27,"Cato" first appeared in the New York press criticizing the proposition; "Brutus" followed on October 18, In response, Alexander Hamilton decided to launch a measured defense and extensive explanation of the proposed Constitution to the people of the state of New York.
Representations of Kingship and Power in Shakespeare's Second Tetralogy Amanda Mabillard Since it Decisions and consequences essays impossible to know Shakespeare's attitudes, beliefs, and play writing methodology, we can only present hypotheses, based upon textual evidence, regarding his authorial intention and the underlying didactic message found in the second tetralogy of history plays.
In constructing his history plays, Shakespeare most likely relied upon the Chronicles of Froissart, and, primarily, Holinshed, but he altered and embellished the material found in these sources.
Through an examination of both the plays and Shakespeare's sources, we see that many of the changes are implemented to promote a deliberate political philosophy.
The plays make the statement that the best possible ruler must be both anointed and politically shrewd. A monarch's license to rule is not based simply on his or her divine right of succession, but also on his or her ability to shoulder the responsibility that comes with being divinely appointed — to lead the people wisely, placing the welfare of the nation above personal desire.
This philosophy seems to be a combination of Tudor and Machiavellian theories on the nature of kingship and power.
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Moreover, it is possible that this didactic message linking all four history plays in the second tetralogy was constructed as a reaction to the succession problem and the potentiality that Elizabeth and her council might choose an heir lacking in one or both of these areas.
Thus, the plays, to a large extent, can be read as a collective guide to help Elizabeth select the next ruler of England. In order to assess the credibility of the argument that the plays contain the didactic message that a ruler needs the combination of divine right and leadership qualities, we must examine the three main characters, Richard II, Henry IV, and Henry V, as found in the chronicles and in the plays.
The historical events of Richard's reign are kept in sequence and no significant changes are made to his character. However, it is the small and subtle changes to the chronicles that so effectively reshape the focus of the play from a simple report on history, to a dramatic lesson on the responsibilities of monarchs.
Many of the embellishments Shakespeare makes to the information he found in Holinshed's Chronicles are directed towards stressing and reaffirming Richard's status as a divinely sanctioned king.
The first and most striking example is the way the character of Gaunt changes. Shakespeare's portrayal of Gaunt is one of the few instances where he dramatically alters the source material of Holinshed1.
In the Chronicles, Gaunt is a disorderly and rapacious magnate. However, in Richard II, Gaunt is the voice of reason, wisdom, and, above all, patriotism. It is likely that Shakespeare relied on the Chronicle of Froissart for his characterization of Gaunt. The following passage from Froissart's Chronicle shows the similarities: The duke of Lancastre was sore dyspleased in his mind to se the kynge his nephewe mysse use himselfe in dyvers thynges as he dyd.
He consydred the tyme to come lyke a sage prince, and somtyme sayd to suche as he trusted best: Our nephue the kynge of Englande wyll shame all or he cease: The Frenchman are right subtyle; for one myschiefe that falleth amonge us, they wolde it were ten, for otherwise they canne nat recover their dommages, nor come to their ententes, but by our owne means and dyscorde betwene ourselfe.
And we se dayly that all realmes devyded are destroyed. John Froissart, Chronicles [London: In these passages from Froissart is a Gaunt who greatly resembles Shakespeare's character, but Shakespeare further enhances Gaunt's patriotism and loyalty to the king in order to place the emphasis on Richard's divine right to rule.
In many of his speeches in the play, Gaunt emphatically expounds the importance of the Divine Right of Kings.The soldier in battle is confronted with agonising, even impossible, ethical decisions.
Could studying philosophy help? Poor Choices Made in "Pathedy of Manners" Life if full of choices, and it is not always easy to make the right decisions. Ellen Kay's poem, "Pathedy of Manners" is about a brilliant young woman and the consequences of the choices she makes in her life.
Romeo and Juliet is a play about decisions, and more importantly, about action which comes after the decisions. We will write a custom essay sample on Romeo and Juliet — Actions and Consequences specifically for you for only $ $/page. We have essays on the following topics that may be of interest to you.
Character ( INTRODUCTION. The special subject of the greater part of the letters and essays of Schiller contained in this volume is Aesthetics; and before passing to any remarks on his treatment of the subject it will be useful to offer a few observations on the nature of this topic, and on its treatment by the philosophical spirit of different ages.
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