According to this policy there is a separation between religion and state. Practicing untouchability or discriminating a person based on his caste is legally forbidden.
I rant and I rage at the injustice of it, the sheer cruelty of it. In India, the modern class system borrows liberally from the British; we learnt our lessons well, taking over from where the colonial masters left off. So in India we have both traditional caste and modern class well and truly in place and even the most liberated people flaunt it— albeit discreetly— when it suits them, to prove a point: Srinivas believed that caste was a fluid and dynamic social institution.
While caste might not necessarily play the same role it did in the olden days, its fluid character ensures it has adapted to play a role in contemporary society as well. It is unanimously agreed that the role of caste in three major areas of social life is declining. These are observance of rules regarding purity, marriage rules and caste- based occupation.
On the other hand, Sanskritisation has strengthened over the years and caste has permeated into other fields such as education and politics which have increased caste consciousness and kept caste relevant in contemporary Indian society. Weakening of Caste rules The most conspicuous rule among the caste rules regarding purity was that of commensality or rules regarding eating and drinking with or accepting food and water from other castes.
Earlier, due to a stagnant occupational and social setup in the village, these rules were applied stringently. Post-independence, industrialization, education and urbanization, amongst other factors made the applicability of some of these rules unfeasible. Different castes worked alongside in large factories and shared food and water, students of different castes, unaware of commensality rules freely ate with each other in school and at large public gatherings such as marriages, inter-caste mingling happened without commensality rules being adhered to.
Marriage rules are an important component of caste system. In India, these rules are very stringent, intricate and closely dependent on caste rules. Earlier, partners would be matched not just due to caste but according to subcaste, or even sub sub caste. A marriage between two different types of Brahmins would be considered an inter- caste marriage.
Increased education has resulted in weakening of certain marriage rules. Inter-caste marriages have become fairly common in urban areas and towns. Now that marriage is also a result of free choice of two partners, castes role in determining the match is declining.
However, caste endogamy still persists as is evident by the large number of caste matrimony associations and websites. Caste-based occupations initially did allow for some flexibility.
A caste involved in making certain crafts could venture into agriculture but not into the domain which was the specialty of a particular caste. Industrialisation has changed that, for it has brought with it a variety of new, caste-free professions. More and more youngsters in the current generation have opted out of their family and caste occupation for better opportunities.
It is safe to say that caste in its traditional form with its stringent rules has all but disappeared but the question to be examined is whether it continues to persist in different forms.
Caste in Politics After independence, Political parties justified using caste as a pragmatic measure to get electoral support.
This practice has continued till today. Caste was chosen over class as identities of caste are much clearer than class and almost everyone can say which caste they belong to. Class is a lot more ambiguous and harder for people to identify with.
As a result, political parties started using caste garner votes and this led to the concept of a vote bank. Vote bank is another term introduced by MN Srinivas and holds particular relevance in the current Indian political scenario.
According to Guha, it connotes to the general tendency of individuals to vote in herds or groups, whether these herds might be defined in terms of caste, class, language or religion.
It is improbable that only one factor would constitute a vote bank but it is safe to say that most vote banks have caste as a base or as one of the determining factors. When political parties emphasis the caste of their candidates and propose reforms benefiting those belonging to the same caste as their candidate, it increases caste consciousness.
The Bahujan Samaj Party initially focused on the Dalit vote bank by projecting their leader Mayawati as a sort of Dalit Messiah who would bring the downtrodden Dalits up in life by giving them increased opportunities.
After Mayawati coming to power, various Dalit monuments were set up in an effort to boost Dalit pride.Eleven essays written from to Of particular interest are the four essays on the industrialization and urbanization of rural areas, on disputes in an Indian village, on village studies and their significance, and on social anthropology and the study of rural and urban societies.
Agriculture has enabled the Indian peasant to survive for several centuries in a harsh, if not hostile. Home Essays Law and Caste in Modern India Law and Caste in Modern India Topics: Caste system in India, Caste, Law Pages: 10 ( words) Published: April 1, Srinivas M.N.
Caste in modern India and other essays. Bombay: Media Promoter and Publishers, Bombay: Media Promoter and Publishers, Srinivas M.N. Social change in modern India.
Mar 12, · Recent debates regarding inclusion of caste in Census have raised questions about whether caste still matters in modern India.
Ethnographic studies of the midth century identified a variety of dimensions along which caste differentiation occurs. SOCIAL MOBILITY AND EMERGENCE OF CASTE ORGANISATION 2George,Lichtheim, The Concept of Ideology and Other Essays, New York,; Antonio,Gramsci, The Modern Prince and Other Writings, New York, “A note on Sanskritization and Westernization” in Caste in Modern India and other Essays, London, , p Dec 30, · Other sociologists such as Y.B.
India’s legal framework, The Indian Penal Code (IPC), provides various provisions specifically adopted to prevent forms of caste discrimination and other violations of minority rights, both on . British Impact on India This Research Paper British Impact on India and other 64,+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on schwenkreis.com Autor: review • December 19, • Research Paper • 11, Words (45 Pages) • 1, Views. The caste system in india is the paradigmatic ethnographic example of casteit has origins in ancient india, and was transformed by various ruling elites in medieval, early-modern, and modern india, especially the mughal empire and the british raj.
Damle have applied theoretical models to explain mobility and flexibility in the caste system in India.  According to these scholars, groups of lower-caste individuals could seek to elevate the status of their caste .